Endothelium corneum gigeriae galli extract inhibits calcium oxalate formation and exerts anti-urolithic effects.


School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address: [Email]


BACKGROUND : Traditional Chinese Medicine is preferred because of its safety and minimal/reduced side effects. Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli (ECGG) extract, a traditional Chinese drug consisting of the dried gizzard membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson, was assessed for its effects and mechanism on urolithiasis.
OBJECTIVE : To evaluate the effects of ECGG extract on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal formation in vitro, and assess the anti-urolithic effects of ECGG extract in vivo and explore the underlying mechanism.
METHODS : In vitro, CaOx crystals were treated with ECGG extract (0.05, 0.2, and 0.8 g/mL), and assessed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and electrical conductivity. Then, a rat model of renal calculi was established by ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride treatment, and ECGG extract (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 g/kg) was administered orally. After treatment, urine, serum and kidney bioindicators were analyzed, as well as kidney's pathological features.
RESULTS : In the presence of ECGG extract, calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals with typical tetragonal bipyramidal morphology were obtained; meanwhile, the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), a major urinary stone component, was inhibited; in addition, the equilibration time of the chemical reaction of Ca2+ and C2O42- ions was delayed in a concentration dependent manner. ECGG extract actually showed anti-urolithic effects; the incidence rates of crystal formation in the kidney in the model, low, middle and high dose groups were 100%, 90%, 70% and 60%, respectively, with a dose-dependent alleviation of kidney stone amounts and kidney damage. Treatment with middle and high ECGG extract doses significantly decreased urine uric acid and oxalic acid amounts, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid contents, and kidney tissue oxalic acid and calcium levels, while increasing kidney and urinary magnesium and superoxide dismutase levels (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS : ECGG extract has outstanding anti-urolithic effects, potentially with included bioorganic molecules inducing COD crystal nucleation and growth. Therefore, ECGG extract is a promising drug for preventing and treating urolithiasis.


Anti-urolithic effect,Calcium oxalate,Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli,Mechanism,Urolithiasis,