Energy use and economic analysis for wheat production by conservation tillage along with sprinkler irrigation.


Agricultural Engineering Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


This study was conducted to investigate the combination of both sprinkler irrigation and conservation tillage in sustainable agriculture for wheat production. To exploit the advantages of the two systems, conventional tillage along with surface irrigation (T1) and conservation tillage along with sprinkler irrigation (T2) were compared based on energy indices and economic analysis. The study was carried out for two years of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 in a semi-arid environment located at the northwest of Iran. Results revealed that the total average energy consumed was 16.36 and 14.07 GJ ha-1 for T1 and T2, respectively. The total energy input components of indirect and non-renewable were 65.3% (54.9%) and 76.0% (62.9%) for T1 (and T2). Energy inputs of diesel, nitrogen fertilizer and seeds were prime energy consuming components. In T2, the sprinkler irrigation was another energy consumption input. The highest net energy gain (109.25 GJ ha-1), energy use efficiency (5.53), energy productivity (382.00 kg GJ-1) and energy profitability (8.50) and the lowest specific energy (3.36 MJ kg-1) were found in T2. As well as the highest net return (1821.08 US$ ha-1), a benefit-cost ratio (4.4) and productivity (9.33 kg US$-1) was obtained in T2. Therefore, application of conservation tillage along with sprinkler irrigation could be suggested as a promising combination for wheat production in a semi-arid environment.


Benefit-cost ratio,Direct energy,Economic analysis,Energy productivity,Renewable energy,Sustainable agriculture,