The treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) places a major burden on patients and their families. Interventions such as nutritional management, medication regimen, and renal replacement therapies require active patient participation. An integrative literature review was carried out to identify articles on the engagement and participation of people with CKD in their care. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Kidney Failure, Chronic", "Self Care", and "Patient Participation" were used to conduct a search on the following databases: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the U.S. National Library of Medicine® (Medline/PubMed), Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (Bireme). A total of 21 articles published between 2012 and 2016 were selected. The most commonly used data collection and analysis techniques were semi-structured interviews and phenomenological thematic analysis, respectively. The articles were categorized into the following thematic groups: illness management and treatment; involvement in the decision-making process; advanced care plan; and home peritoneal dialysis. We found that there is a lack of qualitative research in certain areas, namely kidney transplant recipients and people with initial stages of CKD. People with CKD should be encouraged to actively engage in their own care, which in turn requires the knowledge, motivation and support of health professionals.