Enhanced sono-photocatalysis of tetracycline antibiotic using TiO2 decorated on magnetic activated carbon (MAC@T) coupled with US and UV: A new hybrid system.

Affiliation

Research Center for Environmental Health Technology (RCEHT), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

A combined system including sonocatalysis and photocatalysis was applied for catalytic degradation of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic using TiO2 decorated on magnetic activated carbon (MAC@T) in coupling with ultraviolet (UV) and ultrasound (US) irradiations. MAC was fabricated via magnetization of AC using Fe3O4 nanoparticles. FESEM, EDS, TEM, BET, XRD, PL, VSM and UV-visible DRS techniques were used to characterize the catalyst features. The performance of MAC@T/UV/US system was examined under impact of different input variable such as catalyst loading, solution pH, initial TC concentration, US power, scavenging agents, chemical oxidants and co-exiting anions. The degradation rate was enhanced substantially when MAC@T coupled with US and UV irradiations. At optimal conditions, over 93% TC and 50% TOC were removed under 180 min reaction. Whereas, the complete removal of TC was obtained after 60 min treatment, when MAC@T/UV/US coupled with oxidants. Decreasing sequence of the inhibitory effect of anions was chloride > bicarbonate > phosphate > nitrate > sulfate. Both Fe leaching and loss of the decontamination were slight with reused times, indicating MAC@T has a high stability and reusability. According to trapping tests, holes, OH and 1O2 were contributed in the degradation process. In conclusion, integration of MAC@T composite and US/UV for enhancing catalytic degradation efficiency can be introduced as a successful and promising technique, owing to excellent catalytic activity, easy recovery, good adsorption capacity and high durability and recycling potential.

Keywords

Antibiotic degradation,Heterogeneous photocatalysis,Hybrid system,Magnetic catalyst,Sonocatalysis,