Enhanced transformation of sulfonamide antibiotics by manganese(IV) oxide in the presence of model humic constituents.


Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510006, China. Electronic address: [Email]


In this study, a manganese(IV) oxide-mediator (MnO2-mediator) system for the abatement of sulfonamide antibiotics was evaluated. Two simple model humic constituents, syringaldehyde (SA) and acetosyringone (AS), could promote the transformation of sulfonamides at pH 5-8. Two additional potential mediators, tannic acid and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS), had negligible enhancement on the transformation of sulfonamides by MnO2. The enhancing effect was attributed to the reaction of the oxidized mediator (i.e., phenoxy radical or benzoquinone-like compounds) produced from the oxidation of the mediators by MnO2 with SMX. Thereby cross-coupling products from sulfamethoxazole (SMX) with oxidized SA were formed in the MnO2-SA system, which was confirmed by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Coexisting metal ions (i.e., Ca(II), Mg(II) and Mn(II)) showed inhibitory effects in the order of Mn(II)> Ca(II)> Mg(II). For repetitive runs of the MnO2-SA-SMX system, MnO2 lost its oxidative capacity due to the sorption of Mn(II) on the reactive sites of the MnO2 surface. A full regeneration of partially deactivated MnO2 by oxidation of the sorbed Mn(II) with Mn(VII) could be achieved.


Cross-coupling,Manganese oxide (MnO(2)),Mediators,Metal ions,Regeneration,Sulfonamide antibiotics,