Entrapment of porous cross-linked enzyme aggregates of maltogenic amylase from Bacillus lehensis G1 into calcium alginate for maltooligosaccharides synthesis.


School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia. Electronic address: [Email]


Maltooligosaccharides (MOSs) are emerging oligosaccharides in food-based applications and can be synthesized through the enzymatic synthesis of maltogenic amylase from Bacillus lehensis G1 (Mag1). However, the lack of enzyme stability makes this approach unrealistic for industrial applications. The formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) is a promising tool for improving enzyme stability, and the substrate accessibility problem of CLEA formation was overcome by the addition of porous agents to generate porous CLEAs (p-CLEAs). However, p-CLEAs exhibited high enzyme leaching and low solvent tolerance. To address these problems, p-CLEAs of Mag1 (Mag1-p-CLEAs) were entrapped in calcium alginate beads (CA). Mag1-p-CLEAs-CA prepared with 2.5% (w/v) sodium alginate and 0.6% (w/v) calcium chloride yielded 53.16% (17.0 U/mg) activity and showed a lower deactivation rate and longer half-life than those of entrapped free Mag1 (Mag1-CA) and entrapped non-porous Mag1-CLEAs (Mag1-CLEAs-CA). Moreover, Mag1-p-CLEAs-CA exhibited low enzyme leaching and high tolerance in various solvents compared to Mag1-p-CLEAs. A kinetic study revealed that Mag1-p-CLEAs-CA exhibited relatively high affinity towards beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (Km = 0.62 mM). MOSs (300 mg/g) were synthesized by Mag1-p-CLEAs-CA at 50 °C. Finally, the reusability of Mag1-p-CLEAs-CA makes them as a potential biocatalyst for the continuous synthesis of MOSs.


Calcium alginate beads,Maltooligosaccharides,Porous cross-linked enzyme aggregates,

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