Epidemiology and outcome of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU in the current highly active antiretroviral therapy era.


Intensive Care Unit, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense (CHUO), SERGAS, Spain. Electronic address: [Email]


OBJECTIVE : To describe the epidemiology of critical disease in HIV-infected patients during the current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and to identify hospital mortality predictors.
METHODS : A longitudinal, retrospective observational study was made of HIV-infected adults admitted to the ICU in two Spanish hospitals between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2014. Demographic and HIV-related variables were analyzed, together with comorbidities, severity scores, reasons for admission and need for organ support. The chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables, while continuous variables were contrasted with the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Kruskal-Wallis test, assuming an alpha level=0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios for assessing correlations to mortality during hospital stay. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to study mortality trends over time.
RESULTS : A total of 283 episodes were included for analyses. Hospital mortality was 32.9% (95%CI: 21.2-38.5). Only admission from a site other than the Emergency Care Department (OR 3.64, 95%CI: 1.30-10.20; p=0.01), moderate-severe liver disease (OR 5.65, 95%CI: 1.11-28.87; p=0.04) and the APACHE II score (OR 1.14, 95%CI: 1.04-1.26; p<0.01) and SOFA score at 72h (OR 1.19, 95%CI: 1.02-1.40; p=0.03) maintained a statistically significant relationship with hospital mortality.
CONCLUSIONS : Delayed ICU admission, comorbidities and the severity of critical illness determine the prognosis of HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU. Based on these data, HIV-infected patients should receive the same level of care as non-HIV-infected patients, regardless of their immunological or nutritional condition.