Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in different hosts in Nigeria: A meta-analysis.

Affiliation

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Cryptosporidium is a medical and veterinary significant protozoan parasite that infects all classes of vertebrates. Environmental contamination with infective oocyst increases the risk of transmission to susceptible host. Estimates of Cryptosporidium prevalence in humans and animals are lacking in Nigeria, therefore a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to understand the epidemiology of the disease over a period of 30 years using publications from EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science, AJOL and Google Scholar databases. Studies that met the inclusion criteria of Cryptosporidium infections under the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) checklist were analysed. Point estimates prevalence and subgroup analyses based on potential risk factors and diagnostic techniques were evaluated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 64 eligible studies published between 1987 and 2017 were selected for meta-analysis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection using quality effects model among human, cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, laboratory animals and birds was estimated as 15.0, 26.1, 16.6, 26.0, 20.1, 9.0 and 7.2%, respectively. The high report of C. parvum subtype family IIc indicates the importance of anthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium in Nigeria. Heterogeneity of subgroup (regions, species) and risk factors (HIV status, age, gender, faecal type) analyses were determined. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in different hosts were high and linked with several risk factors such as environmental contamination and animal contact. There is need for increased awareness on the prevalence of the disease to provide strategies that mitigate the disease in humans and animals.

Keywords

Cryptosporidium,Meta-analysis,Nigeria,Prevalence,Vertebrates,