Estimating the Level of Carbamoylated Plasma Non-High-Density Lipoproteins Using Infrared Spectroscopy.

Affiliation

Department of Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : The increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients can be partly explained by the presence of carbamoylated lipoproteins. Lipid profiles can be determined with infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, the effects of carbamoylation on spectral changes of non-high-density lipoproteins (non-HDL) were studied.
METHODS : In the present study, fasting serum samples were obtained from 84 CKD patients (CKD stage 3-5: n = 37 and CKD stage 5d (hemodialysis): n = 47) and from 45 healthy subjects. In vitro carbamoylation of serum lipoproteins from healthy subjects was performed using increasing concentrations of potassium cyanate. Lipoprotein-containing pellets were isolated by precipitation of non-HDL. The amount of carbamoylated serum non-HDL was estimated using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, followed by soft independent modelling by class analogy analysis.
RESULTS : Carbamoylation resulted in a small increase of the amide I band (1714-1589 cm-1) of the infrared spectroscopy (IR) spectrum. A significant difference in the amide II/amide I area under the curves (AUC) ratio was observed between healthy subjects and CKD patients, as well as between the two CKD groups (non-dialysis versus hemodialysis patients).
CONCLUSIONS : ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can be considered as a novel method to detect non-HDL carbamoylation.

Keywords

carbamoylation,chronic kidney disease,infrared spectroscopy,lipoproteins,

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