Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a prominent traditional herb and its dry tuber is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. To ensure the quality of dried G. elata, the establishment of a nondestructive and convenient method to monitor the drying process is necessary. In this study, a nondestructive low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was introduced to monitor the drying process of G. elata. Three water states (bound, immobilized, and free) in G. elata samples were investigated through multiexponential fitting and inversion of the NMR data. The variation and distribution of the three water states during drying were monitored by LF-NMR, and the spatial distribution of water and internal structural changes were analyzed by MRI. Linear analysis of the moisture content, L* (lightness), b* (yellowness), and NMR parameters showed good correlations among them. Furthermore, partial least squares regression (PLSR) model analysis, which takes into account all NMR parameters, also showed good correlations among these parameters. All results showed that LF-NMR was feasible and convenient for monitoring moisture content. Therefore, LF-NMR and MRI could be used to monitor the moisture content nondestructively in the drying process of Chinese traditional herbs.