Evaluation of furanocoumarins from seeds of the wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. s.l.).

Affiliation

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, Jelgavas str. 1, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Although the wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L. s.l.) fruits are known to contain linear and angular furanocoumarins, the individual components of the seeds have not been fully identified and quantitated, and, in the case of immature seeds, reported. In view of this, the main furanocoumarin compounds were extracted using pyridine, and were isolated using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was done based on detailed spectral analysis conducted by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS), 1H and 13C NMR and, where possible, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The quantitative analysis of furanocoumarin compounds in the wild parsnip was conducted by analytical ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-DAD), calculated against the standard curves of isolated compounds. The total yields of furanocoumarin compounds from the seeds after extraction with pyridine were 107.2-222.8 mg g-1 (fresh weight) and 50.2-66.4 mg g-1 (soluble dry matter). Thirteen furanocoumarins were identified. The main compounds (percentage in FW) in immature seeds were bergapten (40.8), pimpinellin (10.5), methoxsalen (5.7), isopimpinellin (4.3), imperatorin (3.2), and phellopterin (7.2). Seven constituents previously not described in P. sativa seeds and its products were identified, namely, byakangelicol (14.4), heraclenin (8.5), isobergapten (2.5), byakangelicin (1.3), heraclenol (0.5), psoralen (0.3), and isobyakangelicin (0.8). The latter is a new compound of the Apiaceae family. Extraction of immature seeds using pyridine gave a much higher yield and a greater variety of furanocoumarins. This indicates that the wild parsnip, along with other Apiaceae family plants, may be an important source of bioactive compounds.

Keywords

Apiaceae family,Fruits,Furanocoumarins,GC–MS/SIM,Isobyakangelicin,Pastinaca sativa,UPLC–DAD-ESI/MS,Umbelliferae,Unripe seeds,