Evaluation of surgeon and patient radiation exposure by imaging technology in patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion: systematic review of the literature.


Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St, Meyer 5-185A, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address: [Email]


Minimally invasive spine techniques are becoming increasingly popular owing to their ability to reduce operative morbidity and recovery times. The downside to these new procedures is their need for intraoperative radiation guidance.


Fluoroscopy,Image-guided surgery,Instrumented fusion,Intraoperative CT,Minimally invasive surgery,Radiation exposure,