l-Homoarginine (hArg) is biosynthesized from l-arginine (Arg) and l-lysine (Lys) by arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). AGAT also catalyzes the formation of guanidinoacetate (GAA) from Arg and glycine (Gly). GAA is converted to creatine (N-methyl guanidinoacetate) by guanidinoacetate N-methyl-transferase (GAMT). Low circulating and excretory concentrations of hArg are associated with worse cardiovascular outcome and mortality. hArg is a poor substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and a weak inhibitor of arginase. The metabolism of hArg in humans is little investigated. Previously, we found that orally administered hArg (125 mg/day) increased the plasma concentration of hArg, but not of Arg, the substrate of NOS, in healthy subjects. We newly analyzed the plasma samples collected in that study for Lys and other amino acids. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.008) with respect to plasma Lys concentration which increased by about 8% after a 4-week hArg supplementation. In vitro, recombinant human arginase and bovine liver arginase I were demonstrated by a specific and sensitive stable-isotope GC-MS assay to hydrolyze hArg to Lys. Our results suggest that Lys is a metabolite of hArg produced by the hydrolytic activity of arginase. Arginase may play a key role in hArg homeostasis in humans.