Examining the role of total organic carbon and black carbon in the fate of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in indoor dust from Nepal: Implication on human health.

Affiliation

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, PR China; Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science (IEAS), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT) 3-5-8, Saiwai-Cho, Fuchu-Shi, Tokyo, 1838509, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Despite the fact that the consumption and import of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been stopped in Nepal since 2001, they are still of worry for human prosperity and the environment because of their persistence behavior and constant release from sources that are presently being used. The essential objective of this study was to assess the concentration and spatial distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in residential dust from Nepal keeping in mind the end goal to evaluate the importance of total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) in the fate of legacy POPs. Additionally, health risk exposure via dust ingestion and dermal absorption was estimated to evaluate the significance of dust media for human exposure. Results demonstrated that ∑OCPs in dust was 37 times greater than ∑PCBs. DDT was mostly dominated in the dust, and contributed 90% of the ∑OCPs, while hexa-CBs predominated among PCBs and represented 34% of ∑PCBs. Birgunj and Biratnagar had a relatively higher level of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs than those of Kathmandu and Pokhara. TOC and BC showed a poor connection with OCPs, recommending little or no role. However, PCB in the dust, especially low congeners was strongly linked with TOC but not BC indicating the significant role of TOC. The daily risk exposure estimation indicated dermal absorption through dust as the principal means of OCPs/PCBs intake to both adult and children population. These estimated exposures were 2-4 orders of magnitude inferior to their corresponding reference dose showing insignificant risk.

Keywords

Dermal absorption,Dust ingestion,Lindane,Nepal,Technical DDT,Urban area,

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