The clinical significance of Xp22.31 microduplication is controversial as it is reported in subjects with developmental delay (DD), their unaffected relatives and unrelated controls. We performed multifaceted studies in a family of a boy with hypotonia, dysmorphic features and DD who carried a 600 Kb Xp22.31 microduplication (7515787-8123310bp, hg19) containing two genes, VCX and PNPLA4. The duplication was transmitted from his cognitively normal maternal grandfather. We found no evidence of the duplication causing the proband's DD and congenital anomalies based on unaltered expression of PNPLA4 in the proband and his mother in comparison to controls and preferential activation of the paternal chromosome X with Xp22.31 duplication in proband's mother. However, a de novo, previously reported deleterious, missense mutation in Pur-alpha gene (PURA) (5q31.2), with a role in neuronal differentiation was detected in the proband by exome sequencing. We propose that the variability in the phenotype in carriers of Xp22.31 microduplication can be due to a second and more deleterious genetic mutation in more severely affected carriers. Widespread use of whole genome next generation sequencing in families with Xp22.31 CNV could help identify such cases.