Exploring deeper genetic structures: Aedes aegypti in Brazil.

Affiliation

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto Nacional Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, CEP 69.067-375, Amazonas, Brazil; Laboratório de Genética de Populações e Evolução de Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, CEP 69.067-375, Amazonas, Brazil. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Aedes aegypti, being the principal vector of dengue (DENV1 to 4), chikungunya and Zika viruses, is considered as one of the most important mosquito vectors. In Brazil, despite regular vector control programs, Ae. aegypti still persists with high urban density in all the states. This study aimed to estimate the intra and inter population genetic diversity and genetic structure among 15 Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti based on 12 microsatellite loci. A total of 510 specimens were analyzed comprising eight locations from northern (Itacoatiara, Manaus, Novo Airão, Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Porto Velho, Guajará-Mirim and Macapá), three from southeastern (Araçatuba, São José de Rio Preto and Taubaté), one from southern (Foz do Iguaçu), one from central west (Cuiabá) and two from northeastern (Campina Grande and Teresina) regions of Brazil. Genetic distances (pairwise values of FST and Nm) and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) were statistically significant, independent of geographic distances among the sites analyzed, indicating that them are under a complex dynamic process that influence the levels of gene flow within and among regions of the country. Bayesian analysis in STRUCTURE revealed the existence of two major genetic clusters, as well as there was genetic substructure within them; these results were confirmed by AMOVA, BAPS and DAPC analyses. This differentiation is the cumulative result of several factors combined as events of multiple introduction, passive dispersal, environmental and climatic conditions, use of insecticides, cycles of extinction and re-colonization followed by microevolutionary processes throughout the country. Isolation by distance also contributed to this differentiation, especially among geographically closer localities. These genetic differences may affect its vector competence to transmit dengue, chikungunya, Zika and the response to vector control programs.

Keywords

Arboviruses vector,Brazil,Demographic dynamic,Genetic diversity,Microsatellites,Population genetics,