Exploring the role of the membrane bilayer in the recognition of candesartan by its GPCR AT1 receptor.


National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: [Email]


Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension in particular are major health risks worldwide and the improvement on their treatment will be beneficial for the human health. AT1R antagonists belong to the sartans family that targets the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) through blocking the hormone angiotensin II to exert its detrimental effects in pathological states. As a consequence, they are beneficial to treat hypertension, diabetes related kidney failure and hyperaemic episodes. Long unbiased Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to explore candesartan's possible 2D and 3D diffusion mechanisms towards AT1R receptor. 3D diffusion mechanism is referred to the direct binding of the AT1 antagonist candesartan to the AT1R 3D structure (PDB ID: 4YAY). 2D diffusion mechanism involves first, the incorporation of candesartan in the bilayer core and then its localization on the AT1R binding cavity, through a diffusion mechanism. The obtained results indicate that membranes interact significantly with the neutral form of candesartan, which is indeed approaching the receptors' active site through diffusion via the lipids. On the other hand, the deprotonated form of the drug is interacting with AT1R's extracellular loop and fails to enter the membrane, pointing out the importance of the pH microenvironment around the receptor. To validate the calculated diffusion coefficients of the drug in the lipid bilayers 2D DOSY NMR experiments were recorded and they were in good agreement. Information on the impact that has the interaction of candesartan with the membrane is very important for the rationally design and development of potent ARBs. Thus, its conformational features as well as its localization in the membrane core have to be thoroughly explored.


2D/3D diffusion,AT1R,Candesartan,DOSY,Lipid bilayers,Molecular dynamics,

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