OBJECTIVE : To determine the serum levels of vasohibin (VASH)-1 and other biomarkers in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with different urinary albumin to creatinine ratios (UACR), and correlate VASH-1 expression with the inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). METHODS : A total of 697 T2DM patients were stratified into four groups: N-UAlb (UACR <30 mg/g with normal blood pressure, n = 144), M-UAlb (UACR 30-300 mg/g with normal blood pressure, n = 143), L-UAlb (UACR >300 mg/g with normal blood pressure, n = 126), and L-UAlb+HP (UACR >300 mg/g with hypertension, n = 134). In addition, 150 healthy subjects were included as normal controls (NC). In addition to recording the age and duration of diabetes, the serum levels of VASH-1, silent information regulator factor 2-related enzyme 1 (sirtuin-1, SIRT1), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured. Clinical parameters related to UACR and VASH-1 were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and ridge regression analysis. RESULTS : The UACR, VASH-1, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), ESR, CRP, VEGF, HIF1α, TNF-α and TGF-β1 levels in all patient groups were significantly higher, and SIRT1 levels were lower compared to the NC group. Pearson correlation analysis showed that UACR and VASH-1 levels were positively correlated with HbA1c, ESR, CRP, VEGF, HIF1α, TNF-α and TGF-β1, and negatively with SIRT1. Ridge regression analysis showed that every serological marker was an independent factor affecting UACR. CONCLUSIONS : Serum VASH-1 may be associated with the expression of renal inflammation and fibrosis-related factors, and have a potential connection with DKD.