An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of recombinant cellobiohydrolase on the hydrolysis and in vitro rumen microbial fermentation of agricultural straws including rice straw, wheat straw, and corn straw. The cellobiohydrolase from Lentinula edodes (LeCel7A) was produced in Pichia pastoris. The optimal temperature and pH for LeCel7A were 60 °C and 5.0, respectively. The recombinant protein enhanced the hydrolysis of three straws. During in vitro rumen fermentation of three straws, the fiber digestibility, concentration of acetate and total volatile fatty acids, and fermentation liquid microbial protein were increased by LeCel7A. High throughput sequencing and real-time PCR data showed that the effects of LeCel7A on ruminal microbial community depended on the fermentation substrates. The relative abundances of Prevotellaceae_UCG_003 and Saccharofermentans were increased by LeCel7A regardless of agricultural straws. With rice straw, LeCel7A increased the relative abundances of Desulfovibrio, Ruminococcaceae and its some genus. With wheat straw, LeCel7A increased the relative abundances of Succiniclasticum, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus. With corn straw, Succiniclasticum, Christensenellaceae_R_7_group and Desulfovibrio were increased by LeCel7A. This study demonstrates that LeCel7A could enhance the hydrolysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation of agricultural straws, showing the potential of LeCel7A for improving the utilization of agricultural straws in ruminants.