This study includes the fabrication of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the help of a plant polyphenol called Resveratrol through an ecofriendly synthetic process without any use of harmful reductants. In the fabrication of AuNPs, Resveratrol acts as both stabilizing and reducing agent. The prepared AuNPs is tested on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats for their amelioration consequence. The images of TEM displayed the development of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) with a median of 20 nm particle size. The STZ injected diabetic rats were administrated orally with calcium dobesilate (CD; 500 mg/kg/day) or AuNPs (200, 300 mg/kg/day) for a period of 3 months. The characteristics displayed by AuNPs were found to be similar with CD in decreasing permeability of blood-retinal barrier in STZ injected diabetic rats. The retinal vessels in the AuNPs administrated diabetic rats were observed to be decreased through the retinal histopathological examination. In the AuNPs administrated diabetic rats, the retinal expression of renal Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF) was observed to be increased and the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-1), which was increased in diabetic rats was declined on treating with AuNPs. On treating the STZ injected diabetic rats with AuNPs, all the retinal mRNA expressions of VEGF-1, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNFα), Monocyte Chemotactic Proteins-1 (MCP-1), Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β were observed to be reduced. Furthermore, AuNPs can reduce phosphorylation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) 1/2 along with a growth in nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 produced by STZ. To conclude, the protective effect of AuNPs on STZ injected diabetic rats could help in redeveloping the balance among the inhibitors and stimulators of angiogenesis. Furthermore, on treating with AuNPs results in inhibiting the signaling pathway of ERK1/2 as well as with amelioration of retinal inflammation through trans repression of NF-κB.