Fatty Acid, Lipid Classes and Phospholipid Molecular Species Composition of the Marine Clam Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby 1851) from Cua Lo Beach, Nghe An Province, Vietnam.

Affiliation

Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi 122100, Vietnam. [Email]

Abstract

This study aims to analyze compositions of fatty acids and phospholipid molecular species in the hard clams Meretrix lyrata (Sowerby, 1851) harvested from Cua Lo beach, Nghe An province, Viet Nam. Total lipid of hard clams Meretrix lyrata occupied 1.7 ± 0.2% of wet weight and contained six classes: hydrocarbon and wax (HW), triacylglycerol (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA), sterol (ST), polar lipid (PoL), and monoalkyl diacylglycerol (MADAG). Among the constituents, the proportion of PoL accounted was highest, at 45.7%. In contrast, the figures for MADAG were lowest, at 1.3%. Twenty-six fatty acids were identified with the ratios of USAFA/SAFA was 2. The percentage of n-3 PUFA (ω-3) and n-6 PUFA (ω-6) was high, occupying 38.4% of total FA. Among PUFAs, arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) accounted for 3.8%, 7.8%, 2.2% and 12.0% of total lipid of the clam respectively. Phospholipid molecular species were identified in polar lipids of the clams consisting six types: phosphatidylethalnolamine (PE, with 28 molecular species), phosphatidylcholine (PC, with 26 molecular species), phosphatidylserine (PS, with 18 molecular species), phosphatidylinositol (PI, with 10 molecular species), phosphatidylglycerol (PG, with only one molecular species), and ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP, with 15 molecular species). This is the first time that the molecular species of sphingophospholipid were determined, in Meretrix lyrata in particular, and for clams in general. Phospholipid formula species of PE and PS were revealed to comprise two kinds: Alkenyl acyl glycerophosphoethanolamine and Alkenyl acyl glycerophosphoserine occupy 80.3% and 81.0% of total PE and PS species, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of diacyl glycero phosphatidylcholine was twice as high as that of PakCho in total PC, at 69.3, in comparison with 30.7%. In addition, phospholipid formula species of PI and PG comprised only diacyl glycoro phospholipids. PE 36:1 (p18:0/18:1), PC 38:6 (16:0/22:6), PS 38:1 (p18:0/20:1), PI 40:5 (20:1/20:4), PG 32:0 (16:0/16:0) and CAEP 34:2 (16:2/d18:0) were the major molecular species.

Keywords

Meretrix lyrata,fatty acids,hard clams,high resolution mass spectrometry,lipid classes,molecular species of phospholipid,phospholipids,