Flour fortification for nutritional and health improvement: A review.


Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal. Electronic address: [Email]


Deficiencies of micronutrients, essentially vitamins and minerals, have mainly cause several illnesses, especially in children and women worldwide. Governments and world organizations have focused great efforts to address these shortcomings and improve the health of the populations. This malnutrition can be combated by fortifying basic foods that are consumed daily. Thus, flours, especially wheat, maize and rice, are a popular and common food in the world's populations diet and are gaining considerable attention as a suitable vehicle for micronutrient fortification. There are some studies that show the effectiveness of flour fortification in combating micronutrient deficiencies and several diseases and the flour fortification strategies are directed to meet nutritional and health needs of the populations. The main points discussed in this review are food fortification, with great focus in flour fortification, health benefits, and legislative issues. This review also highlights multifaceted issues related to flour fortification to meet nutritional needs and to improve the health of vulnerable populations.


Flours,Fortification,Health benefits,Micronutrients,

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