Fluoxastrobin-induced effects on acute toxicity, development toxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in Danio rerio embryos.


College of Resources and Environment, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Strobilurin fungicides (SFs), the most commonly used fungicides, pose threats for controlling fungal diseases. The fungicides were monitored in aquatic ecosystems and may have negative effects on nontarget organisms. This project was undertaken to monitor the toxic effects of fluoxastrobin (FLUO) on Danio rerio embryos and to evaluate the SF risks in aquatic ecosystems. The 96-hour median lethal concentration (96 h LC50), hatching rates, and morphological abnormalities were used to analyze acute toxicity and teratogenicity of FLUO to Danio rerio embryos at an FLUO dose of 0.549 mg/L (95% confidence limits: 0.423 to 0.698 mg/L); the results showed that FLUO has high toxicity in embryos that is analogous to the toxicity observed in adult Danio rerio. Fluoxastrobin may lead embryos to delayed hatching at concentrations >0.6 mg/L, and it may lead to teratogenicity (i.e., pericardial edema and spinal curvature). Based on the 96 h LC50 results, the following parameters were evaluated in Danio rerio: development-related indicators (body length and heart rates), reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, the levels of three antioxidants, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and apoptosis. The results elucidated that FLUO inhibition of spinal and heart development may be induced by oxidative stress. In addition, FLUO induced a notable climb in ROS content, LPO, the activated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and it inhibited glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity. Fluoxastrobin led to DNA damage (i.e., a notable climb of 8-OHdG contents and apoptotic cells). Collectively, FLUO posed threats to Danio rerio embryos at multiple levels, and this investigation could be a reminder for people to be more judicious in SF-use to avoid or relieve SF toxicity to nontarget organisms.


8-OHdG,96 h LC(50),AO-EB staining,Apoptosis,Delayed hatching,Teratogenicity,

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