Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: recent updates and future perspectives.


Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. [Email]


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a major worldwide viral disease in animals, affecting the national and international trade of livestock and animal products and leading to high economic losses and social consequences. Effective control measures of FMD involve prevention through vaccination with inactivated vaccines. These inactivated vaccines, unfortunately, require short-term protection and cold-chain and high-containment facilities. Major advances and pursuit of hot topics in vaccinology and vectorology are ongoing, involving peptide vaccines, DNA vaccines, live vector vaccines, and novel attenuated vaccines. DIVA capability and marker vaccines are very important in differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals. This review focuses on updating the research progress of these novel vaccines, summarizing their merits and including ideas for improvement.

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