FoxO6-mediated IL-1β induces hepatic insulin resistance and age-related inflammation via the TF/PAR2 pathway in aging and diabetic mice.

Affiliation

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gi, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan, 46241, South Korea. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

FoxO has been proposed to play a role in the promotion of insulin resistance, and inflammation. FoxO is a pro-inflammatory transcription factor that is a key mediator of generation of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β in the liver. However, the detailed association of FoxO6 with insulin resistance and age-related inflammation has not been fully documented. Here, we showed that FoxO6 was elevated in the livers of aging rats and obese mice that exhibited insulin resistance. In addition, virus-mediated FoxO6 activation led to insulin resistance in mice with a notable increase in PAR2 and inflammatory signaling in the liver. On the other hand, FoxO6-KO mice showed reduced PAR2 signaling with a decrease in inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated insulin signaling. Because FoxO6 is closely associated with abnormal production of IL-1β in the liver, we focused on the FoxO6/IL-1β/PAR2 axis to further examine mechanisms underlying FoxO6-mediated insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver. In vitro experiments showed that FoxO6 directly binds to and elevates IL-1β expression. In turn, IL-1β treatment elevated the protein levels of PAR2 with a significant decrease in hepatic insulin signaling, whereas PAR2-siRNA treatment abolished these effects. However, PAR2-siRNA treatment had no effect on IL-1β expression induced by FoxO6, indicating that IL-1β may not be downstream of PAR2. Taken together, we assume that FoxO6-mediated IL-1β is involved in hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance via TF/PAR2 pathway in the liver.

Keywords

Aging,FoxO6,IL-1β,Inflammation,Insulin resistance,TF/PAR2 signaling,