Laboratory of Molecular and Tumor Immunology, Robert W. Franz Cancer Center, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR, USA; Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; UbiVac, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address: [Email]
In our opinion the most urgent needs to improve patient outcomes are: 1) a deeper ability to measure cancer immunobiology, and 2) increased availability of agents that, coupled with predictive biomarkers, will be used to tailor anti-cancer immunity. Tailoring effective immunotherapy will entail combinations of immunotherapeutics that augment priming of anti-cancer immunity, boost expansion of effector and memory cells of the T, B and NK lineage, amplify innate immunity and relieve checkpoint inhibition. Alternatives to inducing adaptive immunity to cancer include synthetic immunology that incorporate bi-specifics that target T cells to cancer or adoptive immunotherapy with gene-modified immune cells.