Gβγ signaling to the chemotactic effector P-REX1 and mammalian cell migration is directly regulated by Gαq and Gα13 proteins.

Affiliation

From the Departments of Pharmacology and [Email]

Abstract

G protein-coupled receptors stimulate Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors that promote mammalian cell migration. Rac and Rho GTPases exert opposing effects on cell morphology and are stimulated downstream of Gβγ and Gα12/13 or Gαq, respectively. These Gα subunits might in turn favor Rho pathways by preventing Gβγ signaling to Rac. Here, we investigated whether Gβγ signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), a key Gβγ chemotactic effector, is directly controlled by Rho-activating Gα subunits. We show that pharmacological inhibition of Gαq makes P-REX1 activation by Gq/Gi-coupled lysophosphatidic acid receptors more effective. Moreover, chemogenetic control of Gi and Gq by designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) confirmed that Gi differentially activates P-REX1. GTPase-deficient GαqQL and Gα13QL variants formed stable complexes with Gβγ, impairing its interaction with P-REX1. The N-terminal regions of these variants were essential for stable interaction with Gβγ. Pulldown assays revealed that chimeric Gα13-i2QL interacts with Gβγ unlike to Gαi2-13QL, the reciprocal chimera, which similarly to Gαi2QL could not interact with Gβγ. Moreover, Gβγ was part of tetrameric Gβγ-GαqQL-RGS2 and Gβγ-Gα13-i2QL-RGS4 complexes, whereas Gα13QL dissociated from Gβγ to interact with the PDZ-RhoGEF-RGS domain. Consistent with an integrated response, Gβγ and AKT kinase were associated with active SDF-1/CXCL12-stimulated P-REX1. This pathway was inhibited by GαqQL and Gα13QL, which also prevented CXCR4-dependent cell migration. We conclude that a coordinated mechanism prioritizes Gαq- and Gα13-mediated signaling to Rho over a Gβγ-dependent Rac pathway, attributed to heterotrimeric Gi proteins.

Keywords

FR900359,G protein,G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR),G13,Gbetagamma,Gq,P-REX1,Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1),Rho (Rho GTPase),cell migration,cell signaling,guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF),heterotrimeric G protein,regulator of G protein signaling (RGS),