Galectin-3 is involved in HIV-1 expression through NF-κB activation and associated with Tat in latently infected cells.

Affiliation

Division of Antiviral Chemotherapy, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, 890-8544, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is involved in many biological processes and pathogenesis of diseases in part through nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. We demonstrated that Gal-3 expression was significantly induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in OM-10.1 and ACH-2 cells, which are considered as a model of HIV-1 latently infected cells. The expression of Gal-3 was also associated with their viral production. However, the induction of Gal-3 by TNF-α was not observed in their uninfected parental cells. Knockdown of Gal-3 resulted in the suppression of NF-κB activation and HIV-1 replication in the latently infected cells. The expression level of Gal-3 was highly correlated with that of HIV-1 Tat in the latently infected cells stimulated with TNF-α. Furthermore, colocalization and possible interaction of Gal-3 and Tat were observed in the stimulated cells. These results suggent that Gal-3 expression is closely correlated with HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells through NF-κB activation and the interaction with Tat.

Keywords

Chronic infection,Galectin-3,HIV-1,NF-κB,TNF-α,Tat,