Gastric stimulation drives fast BOLD responses of neural origin.


Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; Purdue Institute of Integrative Neuroscience, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States. Electronic address: [Email]


Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is commonly thought to be too slow to capture any neural dynamics faster than 0.1 Hz. However, recent findings demonstrate the feasibility of detecting fMRI activity at higher frequencies beyond 0.2 Hz. The origin, reliability, and generalizability of fast fMRI responses are still under debate and await confirmation through animal experiments with fMRI and invasive electrophysiology. Here, we acquired single-echo and multi-echo fMRI, as well as local field potentials, from anesthetized rat brains given gastric electrical stimulation modulated at 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 Hz. Such gastric stimuli could drive widespread fMRI responses at corresponding frequencies from the somatosensory and cingulate cortices. Such fast fMRI responses were linearly dependent on echo times and thus indicative of blood oxygenation level dependent nature (BOLD). Local field potentials recorded during the same gastric stimuli revealed transient and phase-locked broadband neural responses, preceding the fMRI responses by as short as 0.5 s. Taken together, these results suggest that gastric stimulation can drive widespread and rapid fMRI responses of BOLD and neural origin, lending support to the feasibility of using fMRI to detect rapid changes in neural activity up to 0.8 Hz under visceral stimulation.


Blood oxygenation level dependent,Forestomach stimulation,High-frequency fMRI,Local field potential,