The ageing process is a phenomenon leading to an emergence of a web of interrelated biological processes producing significant changes in the human body. The aim of the paper was to analyse gender-specific differences with regard to selected biochemical parameters in longevity. The study was conducted in Poland in 2017. The study population comprised of long-lived individuals, both living at home and staying at residential care homes. There were 90 people of both genders (69 women and 21 men) aged between 90 and 103 years (mean = 92.36; SD = 2.98). The biochemical markers of longevity in the studied patients were identified by assessing their pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory status in various metabolic aspects. The analysis of biochemical variables revealed numerous statistically significant differences, both in the study group as a whole and between the genders. The ageing process is extremely complex, but understanding it will allow for a real intervention in life extension. Research into the processes involved in ageing and longevity will enable a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for them, and to enjoy those processes in good health.