The present study is focused on the characterization of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson] accessions from different geographic origins (Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru) by iPBS markers and metabolomic fingerprinting. The results showed that the number of amplified polymorphic fragment levels ranged from 20 up to 27 with a level of polymorphism ranging from 80 to 100%. Five of the iPBS primers used in this study provided no specific banding pattern able to discriminate between the different yacon accessions. However, two iPBS primer pairs were able to separate Peru accessions from those of Ecuador and Bolivia. The UPLC-HRMS/MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting showed highly similar metabolomic fingerprints characterized by the accumulation of high quantities of sesquiterpene lactones and diterpenes, but no apparent geographic clustering. The present study demonstrates that yacon accessions from different geographical origins maintained ex situ (in the Czech Republic) present a rather low chemical and genetic diversity.