Genomic polymorphism of Trifolium repens root nodule symbionts from heavy metal-abundant 100-year-old waste heap in southern Poland.


Department of Genetics and Evolution, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Białystok, Ciołkowskiego 1J, 15-245, Białystok, Poland. [Email]


In total, 77 rhizobial strains isolated from the root nodules of T. repens, inhabiting heavy metal-contaminated waste heap (36 isolates) and control grassland (41 ones) in southern Poland, were analyzed for genome polymorphism and strength of the heavy metals' (mainly Zn, Pb, Cd) selective pressure on bacterial genome polymorphism using two PCR-based techniques, ERIC- (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus) and REP-PCR (repetitive extragenic palindromic) sequences. Both methods of different discriminatory power index (D) (ERIC-PCR D = 0.9737; REP-PCR D = 0.9826) allowed to distinguish 47 and 44 rhizobial strains, respectively. Combined analysis of ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR DNA amplicons differentiated all tested isolates. Both ERIC- and REP-PCR DNA fingerprinting techniques showed significant decline of the genome polymorphism (h) in rhizobial population from metalliferous waste heap (h = 0.89 ± 0.03; h = 0.90 ± 0.02, respectively) compared to rhizobia from control non-metalliferous area (h = 0.99 ± 0.01; h = 0.98 ± 0.02, respectively) as well as substantial differences in the genomic polymorphism between both these populations (FST = 0.162, p = 0.008; FST = 0.170, p = 0.000, respectively).


ERIC-PCR,Genomic diversity,Genomotyping,Heavy metals,REP-PCR,Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii,

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