Genotype-phenotype correlation and expansion of orodental anomalies in LTBP3-related disorders.

Affiliation

Genomics and Precision Dentistry Research Unit, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. [Email]

Abstract

The latent transforming growth factor-beta-binding protein 3 (LTBP3), encoding extracellular matrix proteins, plays a role in skeletal formation. Mutations in LTBP3 have been associated with various types of skeletal dysplasia. We aimed to characterize clinical and molecular features of more patients with mutations in the gene, which may help suggest genotype-phenotype correlation. The first two East Asian patients with short stature, heart defects, and orodental anomalies having LTBP3 mutations were identified. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing revealed that the one with a novel heterozygous missense (c.2017G>T, p.Gly673Cys) mutation in LTBP3 had clinical features consistent with acromicric dysplasia (ACMICD). The variant was located in the highly conserved EGF-like calcium-binding domain adjacent to the single reported LTBP3 variant associated with ACMICD. This finding supports that LTBP3 is a disease gene for ACMICD. Another patient with a novel homozygous splice site acceptor (c.1721-2A>G) mutation in LTBP3 was affected with dental anomalies and short stature (DASS). Previously undescribed orodental features included multiple unerupted teeth, high-arched palate, and microstomia found in our patient with ACMICD, and extensive dental infection, condensing osteitis, and deviated alveolar bone formation in our patient with DASS. Our results and comprehensive reviews suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation: biallelic loss-of-function mutations cause DASS, monoallelic missense gain-of-function mutations in the EGF-like domain cause ACMICD, and monoallelic missense gain-of-function mutations with more drastic effects on the protein functions cause geleophysic dysplasia (GPHYSD3). In summary, we expand the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of LTBP3-related disorders, support that LTBP3 is a disease gene for ACMICD, and propose the genotype-phenotype correlation of LTBP3 mutations.

Keywords

Acromelic dysplasia,Acromicric dysplasia,Amelogenesis imperfecta,Cardiac anomalies,Oligodontia,Skeletal dysplasia,

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