Green and innovative technique develop for the determination of vanadium in different types of water and food samples by eutectic solvent extraction method.


Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat, Turkey; King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Institute, Center for Environment and Water, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: [Email]


A green and innovative eutectic solvent based extraction method was proposed for the determination of trace level vanadium in water and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In this extraction technique magnetic stirrer was used for preparation of eutectic solvent by mixing of zinc chloride and acetamide at different molar ratios. Extraction capability of eutectic solvent was increased by adding a non ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) to enhanced phase transfer ratio, to significantly increase the recovery of hydrophobic complex of vanadium with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. A multivariate technique was applied to evaluate the important extraction parameters, which plays important role for optimum recovery of the targeted analyte by proposed extraction method. Multivariate techniques such as (factorial design and central composite design) were applied to screening out the most significant extraction parameters and optimized them. Under optimized extraction conditions, limit of detection and enhancement factor were found to be 0.01 µg L-1 and 64.6, respectively. The relative standard deviation for the determination of trace level vanadium at 0.32 µg L-1 concentration, was achieved to be <3.0% (n = 10). Validity and accuracy of the proposed extraction method was checked by analysis of certified reference materials of Canadian lake water and tomato leaves with % age recovery >98%. The eutectic solvent extraction method was successfully applied for the determination of the trace level vanadium in real water samples of different sources and acid digested food samples, collected from different locations of Tokat city, Turkey.


Eutectic solvent,Food samples,Multivariate techniques,Vanadium,Water,

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