A green, efficient synthesis of cadmium oxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (RGO/CdO) was prepared by one-step co-precipitation and hydrothermal method. Crystalline nature of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. To evaluate the structural morphology and particle size, high resolution transmission electron microscopy were used. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques were employed to establish chemical structure of the nanocomposites and Atomic Force Microscopy was done to measure the thickness. The optical properties were evaluated by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Thermo-gravimetric analysis, BET surface area and zeta potential measurements were carried out to study the thermal and surface characteristics. The CdO nano-particles (NPs) decorated on RGO sheets exhibit better electrical conductivity compared to RGO. The antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites has also been monitored in different culture media imparting good potentiality than RGO.