Changes in the intestinal microbial community and some metabolic disturbances, including obesity and type2 diabetes, are related. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates glucose homeostasis. Microbiota have been linked to incretin secretion. Antibiotic use causes changes in microbial diversity and composition. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between microbiota changes and GLP-1 secretion. A prospective case-control study with a Helicobacter pylori-positive patient model involving subjects under eradication therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin). Forty patients with H. pylori infection and 20 matched participants, but negative for H. pylori antigen. Patients were evaluated before and two months after treatment. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, and C-reactive protein. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (IlluminaMiSeq). Eradication treatment for H. pylori decreased bacterial richness (Chao1, p = 0.041). Changes in gut microbiota profiles were observed at phylum, family, genus and species levels. GLP-1 secretion and variables of carbohydrate metabolism were improved. Correlations were seen between GLP-1 changes and variations within microbial community abundances, specifically Bifidobacterium adolescentis, the Lachnobacterium genus, and Coriobacteriaceae family. A conventional treatment to eradicate H. pylori could improve carbohydrate metabolism possibly in relation with an increase in GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 secretion may be related to alterations in intestinal microbiota, specifically Lachnobacterium, B. adolescentis and Coriobacteriaceae.