HIV biosensors for early diagnosis of infection: The intertwine of nanotechnology with sensing strategies.

Affiliation

Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box, 11365-3486, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). With increasing awareness of AIDS emerging as a global public health threat, different HIV testing kits have been developed to detect antibodies (Ab) directed toward different parts of HIV. A great limitation of these tests is that they can not detect HIV antibodies during early virus infection. Therefore, to overcome this challenge, a wide range of biosensors have been developed for early diagnosis of HIV infection. A significant amount of these studies have been focused on the application of nanomaterials for improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensing methods. Following an introduction into this field, a first section of this review covers the synthesis and applicability of such nanomaterials as metal nanoparticles (NPs), quantum dots (QDs), carbon-based nanomaterials and metal nanoclusters (NCs). A second larger section covers the latest developments concerning nanomaterial-based biosensors for HIV diagnosis, with paying a special attention to the determination of CD4+ cells as a hall mark of HIV infection, HIV gene, HIV p24 core protein, HIV p17 peptide, HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) and HIV related enzymes, particularly those that are passed on from the virus to the CD4+ T lymphocytes and are necessary for viral reproduction within the host cell. These studies are described in detail along with their diverse principles/mechanisms (e.g. electrochemistry, fluorescence, electromagnetic-piezoelectric, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and colorimetry). Despite the significant progress in HIV biosensing in the last years, there is a great need for the development of point-of-care (POC) technologies which are affordable, robust, easy to use, portable, and possessing sufficient quantitative accuracy to enable clinical decision making. In the final section, the focus is on the portable sensing devices as a new standard of POC and personalized diagnostics.

Keywords

Biosensing assays,Early detection of HIV,Nanomaterials,

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