State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Anaerobic Biotechnology, School of Environment and Civil Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Jiangsu Cooperative Innovation Center of Water Treatment Technology and Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009, China. Electronic address: [Email]
The widespread use of bisphenol A (BPA) has led to its ubiquity in the natural environment. Thus, BPA is considered as a contaminant of emerging concern. Due to its widespread use, BPA has been detected in a range of soils and surface waters. This is of concern because BPA has been shown to elicit slight to moderate toxicity to plants. Based on current research and our own work, this paper reviews the toxic effects of BPA on plant growth and development, including effects at the macroscopic (e.g. seed germination, root, stem, and leaf growth) and microscopic (photosynthesis, uptake of mineral nutrient, hormone secretion, antioxidant systems, and reproductive genetic behavior) levels. Furthermore, this paper will discuss effects of BPA exposure on metabolic reactions in exposed plant species, and explore the use of high-efficiency plants in BPA pollution control (e.g. phytoremediation). Finally, this paper proposes some ideas for the future of BPA phytotoxicity research.