Group for Cereals and Oils Processing, College of Food Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology (Ministry of Education), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; Jinjian Cereals Industry Co., Ltd., Changde 415000, China. Electronic address: [Email]
By inspecting starch hierarchical structural evolutions, this work explores how microwave cooking with storage tailors the slowly digestible features of indica (IRS) and waxy (WRS) rice starches. Particularly, relative to conventional cooking-storage, the microwave treatment especially at high powers (8 and 10 W/g) increased the molecular orders (crystallites) and periodic amorphous-crystalline structures. Such changes facilitated the formation of domains with intermediately-densely packed starch chains, being modestly accessible to the diffusion, absorption and catalysis of enzymes and dominantly showing slowly digestible features. Consistently, the microwave processed starches showed a higher SDS (slowly digestible starch) level and a lower digestion rate. This microwave-enhanced SDS generation became more prominent for IRS, and the treated IRS at 10 W/g showed the highest SDS content (ca. 54%). This is related to the enhanced reassembly of glucan chains into ordered/semicrystalline structures and the formation of slowly digestible domains as induced by the increase of amylose molecules.