The effects of high sodium intake on the functionality of resistance arteries have been repeatedly studied in vitro, but no study has focused on salt-sensitive hypertension in vivo. We studied the in vivo reactivity of mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) to vasoactive agents in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats with various sodium diets. Twenty-four male DS rats were randomized into 3 groups: LS (0.3% NaCl diet), NS (0.6% NaCl diet), and HS (8% NaCl diet). After a 12-week intervention, the diameter changes of the MSAs after noradrenaline (NA) and acetylcholine (ACh) exposure were detected by a microscope, and changes in blood perfusion through the MSAs were measured by full-field laser perfusion imaging. HS enhanced the constrictive response of the MSAs to NA and attenuated the relaxing response to ACh. Low sodium intake reduced the response of the MSAs to NA and promoted ACh-induced vasodilatation. HS also aggravated NA-induced blood perfusion reduction and impaired ACh-induced hyperperfusion of the MSAs. Pathologically, HS was associated with arteriolar structural damage and fibrosis of the MSAs. We conclude that sodium intake affects the responsiveness of the MSAs to vasoactive agents in DS rats and might play important roles in modulating blood pressure in hypertensive individuals.