Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Forest Food Processing and Safety, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address: [Email]
This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis grown in high-cell-density culture (HC) on mold growth suppression and postharvest quality improvement in Kyoho grapes. The HC supernatant (HS) of B. subtilis was more potent than the conventional B. subtilis culture supernatant (CS) in suppressing fungal growth on grapes. Specifically, HS was more effective than CS in maintaining the cosmetic qualities (colour, firmness and abscission rate) and physiological indices (respiration, weight loss, pectinases, antioxidant enzymes and titratable acidity). Chemical analyses showed that HC enhanced the secretion of lipopeptides in B. subtilis culture, and high-pressure liquid chromatography further demonstrated that iturin A and surfactin were increased by 1.78- and 1.23-fold in HS compared with CS, respectively. However, LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that HC only upregulated iturins and surfactins, but not fengycins. Therefore, HC may provide an effective method to enrich antifungal lipopeptides from B. subtilis for preservation of fruits and vegetables.