Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; 'Words, Bones, Genes, Tools' Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Center for Advanced Studies, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72076, Germany. Electronic address: [Email]
A new analysis of paleogenomic data from 278 ancient horses (Fages et al. Cellhttp://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2019.03.049) finds that this animal - crucially important to many ancient and contemporary human societies for subsistence, transportation, conflict, and more - was domesticated in at least two different regions, but with the geographic and cultural origins of the modern domestic horse lineage remaining unknown. By tracing ancient horse population movements and inferring the spatiotemporal trajectories of phenotypic adaptations, this study provides fresh perspectives on past human group interactions and activities.