OBJECTIVE : To explore how the natural heterogeneity of human coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and the processing of its B-domain specifically modulate protein aggregation. METHODS : Recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) molecular species containing 70% or 20% B-domain, and B-domain-deleted rFVIII (BDD-rFVIII), were separated from full-length recombinant FVIII (FL-rFVIII). Purified human plasma-derived FVIII (pdFVIII) was used as a comparator. Heterogeneity and aggregation of the various rFVIII molecular species, FL-rFVIII and pdFVIII were analysed by SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and flow cytometry-based particle analysis. RESULTS : FL-rFVIII and pdFVIII were heterogeneous in nature and demonstrated similar resistance to aggregation under physical stress. Differences were observed between these and among rFVIII molecular species. FVIII molecular species exhibited diverging aggregation pathways dependent on B-domain content. The propensity to form aggregates increased with decreasing proportions of B-domain, whereas the opposite was observed for oligomer formation. Development of cross-β sheet-containing aggregates in BDD-rFVIII induced effective homologous seeding and faster aggregation. Naturally heterogeneous FL-rFVIII and pdFVIII displayed the lowest propensity to aggregate in all experiments. CONCLUSIONS : These results demonstrate that pdFVIII and FL-rFVIII have similar levels of molecular heterogeneity, and suggest that heterogeneity and the B-domain are involved in stabilising FVIII by modulating its aggregation pathway.