Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia; Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan. Electronic address: [Email]
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can modulate the host cell microenvironment to cause latent infection and is therefore considered a major health concern in immunocompromised patients. HCMV-encoded microRNAs (miRs) have emerged as a key player in regulating the expression of the host cell and viral genes to induce latent infection. HCMV-encoded miRs can inhibit antiviral immune responses, such as proinflammatory mediators production, antigenic presentation, and apoptosis. In addition, HCMV miRs can reduce viral DNA replication. In this review, we describe the mechanisms underlying HCMV-encoded miR-mediated regulation of latent infection that may be exploited for future designing novel miRs-directed therapies.