L-type lectins (LTLs) belong to the lectin family and are characterized by a conserved structural motif in their carbohydrate recognition domain. LTLs are homologous to leguminous lectins. In this study, we identified and functionally characterized an LTL from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. We designated this LTL as MjLTL2. MjLTL2 contains a signal peptide, a Lectin_leg domain, a coiled coil, and transmembrane domain. MjLTL2 is distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach, and intestine; higher expression levels are seen in hemocytes and the hepatopancreas than in other tissues. MjLTL2 was upregulated following challenge of shrimp with Vibrio anguillarum and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). MjLTL2 can agglutinate several bacteria without Ca2+. In addition, MjLTL2 could bind to several Gram-positive and -negative bacteria by binding to their lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan. However, MjLTL2 could not enhance the clearance of V. anguillarum in vivo. In the presence of WSSV infection, MjLTL2 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a 7-day lower cumulative mortality of M. japonicus. Moreover, less VP19, VP24, VP26, and VP28 mRNAs were extracted from the hemocytes of MjLTL2 knockdown shrimp than from the control. These results suggest that MjLTL2 is involved in immune responses in shrimp.