Identification and characterization of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39) involved in regulating extracellular ATP-mediated innate immune responses in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).


Tianjin Key Laboratory of Animal and Plant Resistance, College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Normal University, 393 West Binshui Road, Xiqing District, Tianjin 300387, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP), released following inflammatory stimulation or infection, is a potent signaling molecule in activating innate immune responses in fish. However, the regulation of eATP-mediated innate immunity in fish remains unknown. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39) is a critical molecular switch for controlling the ATP levels in the extracellular space. CD39 plays a key role in regulating eATP-activated innate immune responses through the phosphohydrolysis of pro-inflammatory eATP to inactive AMP. Here, we identified and characterized a CD39 homolog (namely, poCD39) in the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and analyzed its regulatory role in eATP-mediated innate immunity. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that poCD39 is ubiquitously present in all tested normal tissues with dominant expression in enriched Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). Immune challenge experiments demonstrated that poCD39 expression was upregulated by inflammatory stimulation and Edwardsiella tarda infection. Biochemical and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that poCD39 is a functional glycosylated membrane protein for the hydrolysis of eATP. Inhibition of poCD939 activity with the ecto-NTPDase inhibitor ARL 67156 resulted in increased IL-1beta gene expression and ROS production in Japanese flounder HKMs. In contrast, overexpression of poCD39 in Japanese flounder FG-9307 cells reduced eATP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta gene expression. Finally, poCD39 expression was significantly induced by eATP stimulation in the HKMs, suggesting that eATP may provide a feedback mechanism for transcriptional regulation of fish CD39. Taken together, we identified and characterized a functional fish CD39 protein involved in regulating eATP-mediated innate immune responses in fish.


CD39,Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,Extracellular ATP,Innate immune regulation,Paralichthys olivaceus,