Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: [Email]
Pinpointing the contribution of sources in complex urban areas, affected by large point sources such as oil refineries, is important for developing emission control strategies. Receptor models based on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM), such as chemical mass balance (CMB) and positive matrix factorization (PMF), are useful means for source apportionment, but the inclusion of other gaseous pollutants need further consideration. The results of the multipollutant analyses using temporal variations in pollutant concentrations, chemical PM speciation and receptor modeling, PMF and conditional bivariate polar plots (CBPF), were used for determination of major pollutant sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and less represented pollutants - hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in an urban area in Slavonski Brod, Croatia influenced by a large point source (an oil refinery) in Brod, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is found that the composition of PM2.5 is dominated by carbonaceous combustion particles, mainly organic carbon (OC), with maximum values appearing during winter. Summer PM2.5 levels were dominated by sulfate and ammonium, which can be related to the industrial activities i.e., oil refinery. According to PMF analysis, the majority of OC is coming from biomass burning with ∼50% contribution to observed species concentration followed by ∼30% from industry/refinery and ∼10% from traffic. CPBF model showed that urban and highway traffic was the main source of NO2 concentrations while oil refinery was identified as the dominant source of SO2 and H2S. The CBPF receptor model combines concentrations of pollutants and meteorological parameters and emerged as a reliable complementary tool for the identification of sources for considered gaseous pollutants. Limitations of the CBPF method are in the application in stable atmospheric boundary layer conditions (SABL) as wind direction is not representative. Also, larger uncertainty is related to the representation of peak concentrations transported with higher wind speeds (>8 m/s) due to the lower number of events. This work uses various source apportionment methods in the assessment of PM but also for gaseous pollutants, such as NO2, SO2 and H2S that are less represented in the source apportionment studies and can be used for future scientific applications to assure more efficient air quality management.