Identification of novel rice (Oryza sativa) HPP and HIPP genes tolerant to heavy metal toxicity.


Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address: [Email]


HPP (heavy metal associated plant protein) and HIPP (heavy metal associated isoprenylated plant protein) are a group of metal-binding metallochaperones playing crucial roles in metal homeostasis and detoxification. Up to now, only few of them have been functionally identified in plants. Here, we identified 54 HPP and HIPP genes in rice genome. Analysis of the transcriptome datasets of the rice genome exposed to cadmium (Cd) revealed 17 HPP/HIPP genes differentially expressed, with 11 being upregulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05). Comprehensive analysis of transcripts by qRT-PCR showed that both types of genes displayed diverse expression pattern in rice under excess manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and Cd stress. Multiple genomic analyses of HPPs/HIPPs including phylogenesis, conserved domains and motifs, genomic arrangement and genomic and tandem duplication were performed. To identify the role of the genes, OsHIPP16, OsHIPP34 and OsHIPP60 were randomly selected to express in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants pmrl, cup2, ycf1 and zrc1, exhibiting sensitivity to Mn, Cu, Cd and Zn toxicity, respectively. Complementation test showed that the transformed cells accumulated more metals in the cells, but their growth status was improved. To confirm the functional role, two mutant oshipp42 lines defective in OsHIPP42 expression were identified under metal stress. Under normal condition, no difference of growth between the oshipp42 mutant and wild-type plants was observed. Upon excess Cu, Zn, Cd and Mn, the oshipp42 lines grew weaker than the wild-type. Our work provided a novel source of heavy metal-binding genes in rice that can be potentially used to develop engineered plants for phytoremediation in heavy metal-contaminated soils.


Detoxification,HPP/HIPP proteins,Heavy metal stress,Isoprenylation,Rice,

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