Identification of oxidative stress and estrogenic activity induced by polarity fractions of effluent organic matter.


Division of Environmental Science & Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]


This study evaluated oxidative stress and estrogenic activity induced by hydrophobic (HP), transphilic (TP), and hydrophilic (HL) fractions of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis indicated that EfOM showed higher FRI distribution in regions II (aromatic protein-like) and IV (soluble microbial products, SMPs) than Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), which was primarily in regions III (fulvic acid-like) and V (humic acid-like). The HP and HL fractions of industrial EfOMs significantly increased catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation compared with those of the control (p <  0.05). Estrogenic activity was the highest in industrial EfOM followed by municipal EfOM, and both were significantly higher than that of SRNOM and the control (p <  0.05). FRI distribution in region II was significantly related to CAT, GST, and estrogenic activity (r = 0.7142, 0.7786, and 0.8107, respectively) for the HL fraction of EfOM. For the HP fraction of EfOM, regions II and IV were significantly related to estrogenic activity (r = 0.7221 and 0.6707, respectively). These findings suggest that aromatic protein-like substances and SMPs in EfOM were responsible for the observed oxidative stress and estrogenic activity.


Effluent,Estrogenic activity,Organic matter,Oxidative stress,Polarity,