Identifying Which Place Characteristics are Associated with the Odds of Recent HIV Testing in a Large Sample of People Who Inject Drugs in 19 US Metropolitan Areas.


Institute for Infectious Disease Research, National Development and Research Institutes (NDRI), Inc., 71 West 23rd Street, 4th Fl, New York, NY, 10010, USA. [Email]


This exploratory analysis investigates relationships of place characteristics to HIV testing among people who inject drugs (PWID). We used CDC's 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data among PWID from 19 US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs); we restricted the analytic sample to PWID self-reporting being HIV negative (N = 7477). Administrative data were analyzed to describe the 1. Sociodemographic Composition; 2. Economic disadvantage; 3. Healthcare Service/Law enforcement; and 4. HIV burden of the ZIP codes, counties, and MSAs where PWID lived. Multilevel models tested associations of place characteristics with HIV testing. Fifty-eight percent of PWID reported past-year testing. MSA-level per capita correctional expenditures were positively associated with recent HIV testing among black PWID, but not white PWID. Higher MSA-level household income and imbalanced sex ratios (more women than men) in the MSA were associated with higher odds of testing. HIV screening for PWID is suboptimal (58%) and needs improvement. Identifying place characteristics associated with testing among PWID can strengthen service allocation and interventions in areas of need to increase access to HIV testing.


HIV testing,National HIV Behavioral Surveillance,People who inject drugs,Place characteristics,US metropolitan statistical areas,

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